Helen Picot, Kiran Sura and Christopher Webb of CDKN argue that many developing countries have solid foundations on which to develop their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) for presentation to the UNFCCC. In the first quarter of 2015, the international community will start bringing forward new offers on action to combat catastrophic Climate change is a lasting change in weather patterns over long periods of time. It can be a natural phenomena and and has occurred on Earth even before people inhabited it. Quite different is a current situation that is also referred to as climate change, anthropogenic climate change, or.
These intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs) are due by the end of March (for those ready to do so) and are a first step in collating pledges ahead of the Paris climate deal. And whilst time is short,В suggests that many emerging and developing governments will not need to approach this from a standing start. Conference of Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). (COP19) in Warsaw, November 2013, all Parties were invited to initiate or intensify their INDC preparations.
There will be much debate at COP20 in Lima this December on the scope and an upfront information required for INDCs; however, there is recognition that all countries should include at least a Mitigation refers to actions that reduce our contribution to the causes of climate change. This means reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), through energy efficiency and using alternative forms of transport and energy. (UKCIP) component in their contributions (see, July 2014). In response to this, CDKN embarked on a desk-based exercise to examine the how the current mitigation landscape in its partner countries could help inform these preparations (view the full report ).
CDKNвs 12 priority partner countries are a mix of low- and middle-income countries, ranging from Indonesia in the east to Colombia and Peru in the west, and including several in South Asia and Africa (click on вRegionsв on the website menu bar to see a list). They start from very different bases in terms of Emissions of greenhouse gases, greenhouse gas precursors, and aerosols associated with human activities, including the burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, land-use changes, livestock, fertilisation, etc. (IPCC), climate change priorities, domestic financing, levels of market maturity, urbanisation and industrialisation. It is certain that this diversity in national circumstances and priorities will lead to the development of different types of INDCs.
We already see this spread of in the range of measures that CDKN partner counties are taking in preparing their contributions. Our priority partner countries also fall across several UNFCCC negotiating groups including the Least Developed Countries (LDC) Group, the African Group of Negotiators (AGN), the An ad hoc coalition of low-lying and island countries. These nations are particularly vulnerable to rising sea levels and share common positions on climate change. The 43 members and observers are American Samoa, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Cape Verde, Comoros, Cook Islands,.
( An ad hoc coalition of low-lying and island countries. These nations are particularly vulnerable to rising sea levels and share common positions on climate change. The 43 members and observers are American Samoa, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Cape Verde, Comoros, Cook Islands,. ), Like Minded Countries Group (LMC) and the Association of Independent Latin American Countries (AILAC).
Each group has a position on whether INDCs should address other important elements within the negotiations such as Adjustments in human and natural systems, in response to actual or expected climate stimuli or their effects, that moderate harm or exploit beneficial opportunities. (IPPC), means of implementation and capacity building, as well as mitigation. The issues of ambition and Equity is the concept or idea of fairness in economics, particularly as to taxation or welfare economics. will be of crucial importance in this discourse.
INDCs need to deliver the scale of ambition that will likely keep warming within the 2 degrees Celsius limit, and represent an equitable national contribution to a global climate agreement. Given the UNFCCC principle of common but differentiated responsibility and respective capabilities, assessments of equity may consider past, current and future emissions, and evolving capabilities and responsibilities. So where might countries start in thinking about their INDCs. Looking at the landscape of existing mitigation efforts across CDKNвs portfolio of priority partner countries shows us what foundations are in place that INDCs might build upon.
We noted a significant variation in the type and scale of action across these countries. Several of our partner countries have taken mitigation measures such as putting in place climate legislation, registering nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) or voluntarily identifying quantitative emissions reduction Target period: For multi-year goals, a period of several consecutive years over which the mitigation goal is to be achieved. The last years of the goal period. Target year: For single-year goals, the year by which the goal is to be met.
The last year of the goal period. Target year emissions:. Actions like these could help form the basis for an ambitious INDC. The group of countries also includes some of the worldвs poorest and most climate vulnerable countries.
For them, adapting to the impacts of climate change and building resilience is the national priority. These countries have chosen to address emissions indirectly through their development plans such as Vision2020 in Rwanda and Ethiopiaвs Growth and Transformation Plan. There is also a growing discourse on the mitigation co-, and how this can inform a countryвs INDC. For example El Salvadorвs Mitigation-Based Adaptation (MBA) strategy.
Many developing countries are intending to go first and go big in terms of the national contributions. There are many factors driving this ambition such as Lowers tensions in domestic energy supply and reduces energy shortages. , economic opportunity and strong government leadership. But whatever the reason the hope is that these first movers will spur other developing and developed countries alike into preparing equally ambitious contributions.
Read the full analysis here: